Materi Pembelajaran

1. Definition (Pengertian)
Kalimat Pasif yaitu kalimat yang ‘subjek-nya’ dikenai pekerjaan. Kalimat ini biasanya kata kerjanya
diartikan “di” atau “ter”.
Contoh :
Aktif : Ahmad cleans the room everyday.
(Ahmad membersihkan ruangan itu setiap hari)
Pasif : The room is cleaned by Ahmad everyday
(Ruangan itu dibersihkan Ahmad setiap hari.
2. Basic pattern (Pola dasar)
Subj + to be + V3
Bentuk to be tergantung pada “Tenses” dan “Subjek”.
Bentuk to be: Present : is, am, are
Past : was, were
Cont. : being
Perfect : been
future/modal : be
Aktif (me/ber) Pasif (di/ter)
1. They clean the room everyday 1. The room is cleaned by them everyday
2. They cleaned the room yesterday 2. The room was cleaned by them yesterday
3. They are cleaning the room now 3. The room is being cleaned by them now
4. They have cleaned the room 4. The room has been cleaned by them
5. They will clean the room tomorrow 5. The room will be cleaned by them tomorrow
6. They must clean the room 6. The room must be cleaned by them
Contoh soal :
1. New products …… in the electronic exhibition in Jakarta Expo Centre a week ago.
a. display c. was displaying e. have displayed
b. displayed d. were displayed
Jawab: d (were displayed) : dipamerkan
2. We cannot swim in the swimming pool now, because it…………….now.
a. cleans c. is being cleaned e. has been cleaning
b. is cleaning d. has cleaned
Jawab: c (is being cleaned) : sedang dibersihkan
3. Geologists have explained the cause of earthquakes in terms of a theory………… plate tectonics.
a. knows c. which knows e. that known
b. knowing d. known
Jawab: d (known) : diperpendek dari “which is known”=known : yang dikenal
4. A : ‘What time will the delayed plane depart?’
B : ‘They say that it……………..soon.’
a. will announce c. is to announced e. announces
b. has announced d. will be announced
Jawab: d (will be announced) : akan diumumkan
5. A : ‘I’d like to reserve a single room for next week, please.’
B : ‘I’m sorry, Sir. Our hotel ………… until the end of this month.’
a. It is fully booked c. is fully booked e. will book
b. We booked d. booking it fully
Jawab: c (is fully booked) : dipesan (sudah penuh=fully). Kata ‘fully’ (ket. Penegas pada kalimat
pasif, diletakkan setelah to be sebelum Verb3)

(Kalimat Pengandaian)
Type 1 : Future-Probable Condition (Kondisi yang mungkin terjadi di masa mendatang)
Pattern : If + Subj + V1, Subj + will +V1/inf
(Klausa-if: simple present, klausa akibat: present future)
Contoh : If I have much money, I will buy a new car.
If he is here, I will give him money.
Type 2 : Present – Unreal condition (Kondisi/fakta bertentangan dengan masa kini / present).
Pattern : If + Subj + V2, Subj + would + V1/inf
(Klausa-if: simple past, klausa akibat: past future)
Contoh: If I had much money, I would buy a new car.
If he were here, I would give him money.
Pola inversi: were he here, I would give him money.
Type 3 : Past – unreal condition (Kondisi/fakta bertentangan dengan masa lampau / past).
Pattern : If + Subj + had + V3, Subj + would + have + V3
(Klausa-if: past perfect, klausa akibat: past perfect future)
Contoh : If I had had much money, I would have bought a new car.
If he had been here, I would have given him money.
Pola inversi: had he been here, I would have given him money
Contoh soal:
1. They…………..the trip if they had known she was sick.
a. had postponed c. will have postponed e. would postponed
b. would have postponed d. would postpone
Jawab: b (would have postponed)
2. Katty ……….. you if she had your phone number.
a. will call c. called e. would had called
b. would call d. would have called
Jawab: b (would call)
3. Aisyah : Will you come to the meeting?
Kirana : I don’t know. I can’t make up my mind.
What is the topic we’re going to talk about?
Aisyah : Water supplies for our village. It’s interesting, isn’t it?
Kirana : Okay then. I will come if it…….
a. doesn’t rain c. didn’t rain e. won’t rain
b. isn’t raining d. hasn’t rained
Jawab: a (doesn’t rain)
4. Had she found the right buyer, she …… the house.
a. would have sold c. will sell e. sells
b. would sell d. sold
Jawab: a (would have sold)
5. ‘Had the company been fair in giving bonuses, the employees would not have gone strike.’
From the above sentence, we may conclude that……
a. the employees are still going on strike
b. the company gave the employees fair bonuses

c. the employees were not given bonuses at all
d. the company has lost many employees
e. the employees were very dissatisfied
Jawab: e (the employees were very dissatisfied)

(Kata Penghubung)
􀂷 Berfungsi untuk menghubungkan dua kata, frasa atau kalimat.
􀂷 and : dan
􀂷 but : tetapi
􀂷 or : atau
􀂷 because : karena
􀂷 as, since, for : sebab
􀂷 hence : karena itu
􀂷 therefore : oleh sebab itu
􀂷 consequently : akibatnya
􀂷 eventhough : walaupun
􀂷 although : walaupun
􀂷 despite : meskipun
􀂷 inspite of : meskipun
􀂷 yet : namun
􀂷 nevertheless : namun demikian
􀂷 however : akan tetapi
􀂷 whereas : sedangkan
􀂷 so that : sehingga
􀂷 in order to : agar, supaya
􀂷 in order that : agar, supaya
􀂷 beside : di samping itu
􀂷 in addition : sebagai tambahan
􀂷 moreover : lagi pula
􀂷 furthermore : lagi pula
􀂷 otherwise : jika tidak
􀂷 unless : kecuali jika
􀂷 not only…..
but also….. : tidak hanya….tetapi juga…
􀂷 both…..and….. : baik …… maupun ……
􀂷 either…..or….. : baik …… maupun ……
􀂷 neither…..nor… : baik …. Maupun.… tidak….
Contoh Soal:
1. You’ll have to call me early in the morning; ………., I will have left for work.
a. however c. furthermore e. consequently
b. otherwise d. moreover
Jawab: b
2. My uncle doesn’t earn much, ………, he can send his children to college.
a. however c. therefore e. so
b. and d. hence
Jawab: a
3. ……… she likes him very much, she always pretends to ignore him.
a. Since c. Whereas e. Eventhough
b. Because d However
Jawab: e
4. The hotel provides good facilities; yet ………..
a. the occupancy rate is very low
b. foreign tourist like to stay there
c. it is located on a beautiful beach
d. job training is provided for the employees
e. it is advertised in the yellow pages
Jawab: a
5. John is a very lazy student; besides, …………
a. he is good in extra-curricular activities
b. he always does his homework
c. he prefers studying until late night
d. he never pays attention in class
e. he sometimes practices English
Jawab: d

English Summary: conditional sentences (2)-ringkasan
(ringkasan agar mudah menghafal)
1. If ______V1(s/es)______, ______ will V1
2. If _________V2 _______, _______ would V1
3. If _______ had V3_____, ________ would have V3
1. If she studies hard, she will pass the exam
2. If she studied hard, she would pass the exam
3. If she had studied hard, she would have passed the exam
(atau pola inversi: Had she studied hard, she would have passed the exam)
modal will, would, would have terkadang diganti dengan modal lain. Misal: can, could, could
have, dst.
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English Summary: Relative Pronouns
Yaitu: kata ganti yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua klausa/kalimat).
Misalnya: that, who, whom, whose, which.
A. Relative Pronouns Tunggal (satu kata)
Contoh: who, whom, which, that
Perhatikan tabel di bawah ini:
Posisi yang digantikan Orang Benda (selain orang)
Subject Who / that (yang) Which / that
Object Whom / that (yang) Which / that
Kepunyaan Whose (yang …….nya) Whose
Contoh cara membedakan penggunaan who – whom – whose – which
Who :
The woman who teaches English at the school is my best friend
(Perempuan yang mengajar Bahasa Inggris itu adalah teman baik saya)
Analisa: menggunakan who karena menggantikan the woman (orang). setelah ‘who’ ada
verb/predikat (teach)
Whom :
I know the lady whom you love.
(Saya tahu perempuan yang kamu cintai itu)
Analisa: menggunakan whom karena menggantikan the lady (orang), sebagai object, maka
setelah ‘whom’ bukan verb (tapi noun: you).
Whose :
We are helping the people whose houses were destroyed in the earthquake last month.
(Kami sedang membantu orang-orang yang rumah-nya hancur pada gempa bumi bulan lalu)
Analisa: dari segi arti, ‘whose’ : yang……nya. Titik-titik diartikan dari Noun setelah whose.
Jadi whose house dalam konteks ini diartikan: yang rumahnya.
I want to borrow the book which you bought two weeks ago.
(Saya ingin meminjam buku yang kamu beli dua minggu yang lalu itu)
Analisa: menggunakan which karena menggantikan the book (benda)
Contoh Soal :
1. The candidates ______ have submitted their application letters will have to come for
an interview.
A. who
B. whom
C. which
D. whose
E. where
English Summary: Relative Pronouns
Perhatikan, ada kata-kata have submitted (predikat / verb, dalam bentuk have + V3), berarti
yang dibutuhkan adalah kata ganti untuk Subject (who). Pilihan B (whom) untuk object.
Pilihan C (which) untuk menggantikan benda ( padahal ‘candidates’ = calon-calon, adalah
orang). D (whose) untuk kepunyaan (yang….nya). Sedangkan E (where), menghubungkan
keterangan tempat.
JAWAB: A (who)
2. This is the best picture of my mother ______ I have ever taken.
A. who
B. whom
C. where
D. whose
E. which
Yang akan diganti dengan relative pronoun adalah ‘picture’ (benda – bukan manusia). Maka
relative pronoun yang tepat adalah ‘which’.
JAWAB: E (which)
B. Relative Pronouns Kombinasi/Gabungan
Misal: Preposisi + Relative Pronoun (to whom, in which, from which, dst)
Jika bertemu dengan soal berpola preposisi + relative pronoun, fokuskan pada noun
yang akan digantikan oleh relative pronoun. Kemudian tentukan preposisi apa yang
sebenarnya ikut di noun/klausa tersebut.
Perhatikan contoh berikut:
1. I know the woman. You are talking to her now.
􀂷 I know the woman to whom you are talking now.
(Saya tahu perempuan yang kepada-nya kamu sedang berbicara sekarang)
Keterangan: her diganti dengan relative pronoun whom
2. The victims of flood are now housed outside the town. We have collected money for
􀂷 The victims of flood for whom we have collected money are now housed outside
the town.
(Para korban banjir yang untuk merekalah kami mengumpulkan uang, sekarang dirumahkan diluar
Keterangan: perhatikan object ‘them’. Ketika dua kalimat tersebut digabung, them (object
manusia) digantikan dengan ‘whom’. Letak preposisi ‘for’, tetap sebelum ‘whom’.
English Summary: Relative Pronouns
Contoh soal:
1. The lady ______ this letter is addressed has moved to another city.
A. who
B. to which
C. to whom
D. whom
E. which
Kalimat tersebut jika diurai:
The lady has moved to another city. This letter is addressed to her.
Relative pronoun untuk menggantikan her (sebagai object–manusia) adalah
‘whom’. Karena sebelum her ada preposisi (to), maka diletakkan sebelum whom.
2. This is the club ______ he is the president.
A. which
B. whom
C. of whom
D. to whom
E. of which
Kalimat tersebut jika diurai:
This is the club. He is the president of it.
Kata ‘it’ merupakan kt ganti object ‘the club’ (benda – bukan manusia), maka
relative pronoun-nya “which”. Pilihan jawaban yang ada ‘whom’, pasti salah,
karena ‘whom’ untuk object manusia.
Dari dua kalimat di atas kemudian digabung menjadi:
This is the club of which he is the president.
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